INDOOR environmental health 专业外文翻译(DOC)

发布于:2021-06-13 20:30:27

建环专业外文文献翻译

Indoor Environmental Health
Indoor environmental health comprises those aspects of human health and disease that are determined by factors in the indoor environment. It also refers to the theory and practice of assessing and controlling factors in the indoor environment that can potentially affect health. The practice of indoor environmental health requires consideration of chemical, biological, physical and ergonomic hazards. 室内环境健康包括那些方面的人类健康和疾病是由室内的因素决定的 environment. It also refers to the theory and practice of assessing and controlling factors in the indoor environment that can potentially affect health. The practice of indoor environmental health requires consideration of chemical, biological, physical and ergonomic hazards. 环境。它也指的是理论和实践的评估和室内环境的控制性因素,可能会影响健康。室内环境 健康的实践需要考虑化学,生物,物理和符合人体工程学的危害 It is essential for engineers to understand the fundamentals of indoor environmental health because the design, operation, and maintenance of buildings and their HVAC systems significantly affect the health of building occupants. In many cases,buildings and systems can be designed and operated to reduce the exposure of occupants to potential hazards. Unfortunately, neglecting to consider indoor environmental health can lead to conditions that create or worsen those hazards. 工程师要了解基本是必不可少的室内环境健康因为设计,操作,和建筑和 HVAC 系统 的维护明显影响建筑物的居住者的健康。在许多情况下,建筑和系统的设计和操作,减少人 员暴露于潜在危险。不幸的是,没有考虑室内环境健 BACKGROUND 背景 The most clearly defined area of indoor environmental health is occupational health, particularly as it pertains to workplace airborne contaminants. Evaluation of exposure incidents and laboratory studies with humans and animals have generated reasonable consensus on safe and unsafe workplace exposures for about 1000 chemicals and particles. Consequently, many countries regulate exposures of workers to these agents. However, chemical and dust contaminant concentrations that meet occupational health criteria usually exceed levels found acceptable to occupants in nonindustrial spaces such as offices, schools, and residences, where exposures often last longer and may involve mixtures of many contaminants and a less robust population (e.g., infants, the elderly,and the infirm) (NAS 1981). 室内环境健康最明确的地区是职业健康,特别是因为它涉及到工作场所空气中的污染物。 曝光事件和实验室研究与人类和动物的评价产生的安全和不安全的工作场所暴露约 1000 化学 品和颗粒合理的共识。因此,许多国家规定工人这些药物暴露。然而,化学和粉尘污染浓度符 合职业卫生标准通常高于发现在非工业场所如办公室,学校,住宅,居住者在可接受的水*, 风险往往持续时间较长,可能涉及许多污染物的混合物和一个不太可靠的人口(例如婴幼儿, 老年人,和体弱者)(NAS 1981)。 Operational definitions of health, disease, and discomfort are controversial (Cain et al. 1995). However, the most generally accepted definition is that in the constitution of the World Health Organization (WHO): “Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” 健康,疾病和不适的操作性定义,是有争议的(该隐等人。1995)。可是,最普遍认可 的定义是:世界卫生组织(WHO“健康是一个完整的身体、良好的社会适应能力和良好的心 理的组合而并非只是没有疾病或虚弱。

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Definitions of comfort also vary. Comfort encompasses perception of the environment (e.g., hot/cold, humid/dry, noisy/quiet,bright/dark) and a value rating of affective implications (e.g., too hot, too cold). Rohles et al. (1989) noted that acceptability may represent a more useful concept of evaluating occupant response,because it allows progression toward a concrete goal. Acceptability is the foundation of a number of standards covering thermal comfort and acoustics. Nevertheless, acceptability varies between climatic regions and cultures, and may change over time as expectations change. 定义的舒适性也有所不同。舒适性包括环境感知(例如,热/冷,湿/干,吵/安静,亮/暗) 和情感意义的价值等级(例如,太热,太冷)。rohles 等人。(1989)指出,感知可能是一个 更有用的评价乘员响应的概念, 因为它允许对一个具体的目标的进展。 感知是以一系列的热舒 适和声音的标准为基础。 不过, 在不同气候区域与文化间, 感知可能随预期的改变而发生变化。 Concern about the health effects associated with indoor air dates back several hundred years, and has increased dramatically in recent decades. This attention was partially the result of increased reporting by building occupants of complaints about poor health associated with exposure to indoor air. Since then, two types of diseases associated with exposure to indoor air have been identified: sick building syndrome (SBS) and building-related illness (BRI). 关于室内空气对健康的影响的关注可以追溯到几百年, *几十年来也大大增加。 尤其注意 的是增加的住户健康不佳与暴露于室内空气相关的投诉的报告结果。 此后, 两类与暴露于室内 空气引起的疾病已经确定:疾病大厦综合征(SBS)和建筑相关疾病(BRI)。 SBS describes a number of adverse health symptoms related to occupancy in a “sick” building, including mucosal irritation, fatigue,headache, and, occasionally, lower respiratory symptoms and nausea. There is no widespread agreement on an operational definition of SBS. Some authors define it as acute discomfort (e.g., eye, nose,or throat irritation; sore throat;headache; fatigue; skin irritation;mild neurotoxic symptoms; nausea; building odors) that persists for more than two weeks at frequencies significantly greater than 20%;with a substantial percentage of complainants reporting almost immediate relief upon exiting the building. SBS 介绍一些在被称为“生病”的相关的不良健康症状,包括粘膜刺激,疲劳,头痛,和, 偶尔,下呼吸道症状和恶心。在 SBS 的业务上的定义没有达成共识。有些作者把它定义为急 性不适 (例如,眼睛,鼻子,或喉咙发炎;喉咙痛;头痛;疲劳;皮肤刺激性;轻度神经毒性 症状;恶心;建筑的气味) ,持续超过两周的频率显着大于 20%;有相当比例的投诉报告几乎 立刻在退出。 The increased prevalence of health complaints among office workers is typical of sick building syndrome (Burge et al. 1987;Skov and Valbjorn 1987). Widespread occurrence of these symptoms has prompted the World Health Organization to classify SBS into several categories (Morey et al. 1984): 在办公室工作人员健康的投诉率增加是典型的疾病大厦综合征(Burge 等人。1987 和 1987); valbjorn SKOV。这些症状普遍发生,促使世界卫生组织把 SBS 分几类(莫雷等人。1984): ? Sensory irritation in the eyes, nose, or throat 眼睛,鼻子和喉咙过敏 ? Skin irritation 皮肤过敏 ? Neurotoxic symptoms 神经毒性症状

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? Odor and taste complaints 嗅觉味觉过敏 Sick building syndrome is characterized by an absence of routine physical signs and clinical laboratory abnormalities. The term nonspecific is sometimes used to imply that the pattern of symptoms reported by afflicted building occupants is not consistent with that for a particular disease. Additional symptoms can include nosebleeds, chest tightness, and fever.Some investigations have sought to correlate SBS symptoms with reduced neurological and physiological performance. In controlled studies, SBS symptoms can reduce performance in susceptible individuals (M? lhave et al. 1986).Building-related illnesses, in contrast, have a known origin, may have a different set of symptoms, and are often accompanied by physical signs and abnormalities that can be clinically identified with laboratory measurements. For example, hypersensitivity illnesses, including hypersensitivity pneumonitis, humidifier fever,asthma, and allergic rhinitis, are caused by individual sensitization to bioaerosols. 疾病大厦综合征的特征是缺乏常规的体征和临床实验室检查异常。这个术语有时用来表明 非特异性的症状困扰住户的模式是不一致的,对于一个特定的疾病。其他症状包括胸闷,发 热流鼻血了,一些研究寻找相关。SBS 神经生理表现症状与减少。在症状控制领域,SBS 症 状可以减轻敏感个人 (M? lhave 等人. 1986),与建筑有关的疾病,。”,有可能会有不同的起 源,往往建立症状,伴随着异常体征是临床和实验室测量。比如, 包括过敏性肺炎,过敏症毛 病,湿热症包括,气喘,和过敏性鼻炎,,是由于个人对于空气中的病毒、 细菌、 花粉等生物 气胶的过敏造成的。 Iiinesses associated with exposure in indoor environments are listed in Table 1. Laboratory testing and development of linkages should be performed under direction of a qualified health care professional. 与室内环境的接触有关疾病都列在表 1。实验室检测和关联开展应当在具备保健资格的专 业机构里进行。 DESCRIPTIONS OF SELECTED HEALTH SCIENCES 健康科学之阐述 The study of health effects in indoor environments includes a number of scientific disciplines. A few are briefly described here to further the engineer’s understanding of which health sciences may be applicable to a given environmental health problem. Epidemiology and Biostatistics Epidemiology studies the cause, distribution, and control of disease in human and animal populations. It represents the application of quantitative methods to evaluate health-related events and effects. Epidemiology is traditionally subdivided into observational and analytical components; the focus may be descriptive, or may attempt to identify causal relationships. Some classical criteria for determining causal relationships in epidemiology are consistency,temporality, plausibility, specificity, strength of association, and dose/response. 室内环境中的健康效应的研究包括许多科学领域。一些简要介绍是为了工程师的进一步的 理解,健康科学,可以适用于一个给定的环境健康问题。流行病学生物流行病学研究导致分 配,和,人与动物疾病的控制。代表计量方法在事件影响的评估与健康相关适用。流行病学 是传统上分为观察和分析组成;重点可能是描述性的,或试图找出因果关系。一些经典的标 准确定因果关系的流行病学是一致性,时间性,合理性,特异性,关联强度,剂量/反应。 Observational epidemiology studies are generally performedwith a defined group of interest because of a specific exposure or risk factor. A control group is selected on the basis of similar criteria, but without the exposure or risk factor present. A prospective study (cohort study) consists of observations of a specific group.Examples of epidemiological investigations are ross-sectional,experimental, and case-control studies. Observations conducted at one point in time are considered cross-sectional studies. In experimental studies, individuals are selectively exposed to
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a specific agent or condition. These studies are performed with the consent of he participants unless the condition is part of the usual working condition and it is known to be harmless. Control groups must be observed in parallel. Case-control studies are conducted by identifying individuals with the condition of interest and comparing factors of interest in individuals without that condition. 观察性流行病学研究通常由一组定义的兴趣因为特定风险因素。对照组是类似的准则的基 础上选定的,但没有暴露或存在危险因素。一项前瞻性研究(队列研究)是由一组特定的观 察。流行病学调查的例子是罗斯分,实验,和病例对照研究。在一个时间点的观测被认为是 横断面研究。在实验研究中,个体有选择地暴露在一个特定的代理或条件。进行这些研究参 与者与他同意,除非条件是*常工作的一部分情况这是无害。应在*行对照。病例对照研究 是通过识别个人利益的条件和比较感兴趣的个人因素没有条件进行。 Industrial Hygiene Industrial hygiene is the science of anticipating, recognizing,evaluating, and controlling workplace conditions that may cause worker illness or injury. Important aspects of industrial hygiene include identifying toxic exposures and physical stressors, determining methods for collecting and analyzing contaminant samples,evaluating measurement results, and developing control measures.Industrial hygienists also create regulatory standards for the work environment, prepare programs to comply with regulations, and collaborate with epidemiologists in studies to document exposures and potential exposures to help determine occupation-related illness. 劳动卫生 劳动卫生是科学预测,识别,评估和控制工作场所的条件,可能导致工人生病或受伤。 工业卫生的重要方面,包括识别有毒物质和身体的压力,确定收集和分析污染物样品的方 法,评价测量结果,并制定控制措施。工业卫生创建工作环境的监管标准,编制程序符合规 定,并在研究合作文件暴露的流行病学家和潜在的风险,以帮助确定与职业有关的疾病。

Microbiology and Mycology Microbiology studies microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites; mycology is a subspecialty that focuses on fungi. Environmental microbiologists and mycologists investigate the growth, activity, and effect of microorganisms found innature, many of which can colonize and grow in buildings and building systems. Important aspects of environmental microbiology and mycology are identification of populations of contaminant microorganisms in buildings; determination of methods of collection of air, water, and surface samples; and evaluation of results of microbiological measurements. Effective, practical, and safe disinfection practices are usually developed and validated by microbiologists and mycologists. 微生物学、真菌学 微生物学专业微生物群,包括细菌病毒,真菌,寄生虫,;是重点专科真菌学真菌。环境 微生物学家和真菌学家研究生长,活性,影响微生物的发现中,其中许多可以殖民和在建筑物 和建筑系统的成长。 环境微生物学、 真菌学的重要方面是建筑中的污染物的微生物种群的鉴定; 对收集的空气测定方法,水,和表面的微生物样品;测量结果与评价。有效的,实用的,安全 的消毒的做法通常是开发和验证的微生物学家和真菌学家。 Aerobiology is the study of airborne microorganisms or other biologically produced particles, and the effects of these aerosols (bioaerosols) on other living organisms. The section on Bioaerosols has more information on these contaminants. 生物学是空气中的微生物或其他生物产生的粒子的研究,以及这些影响气溶胶(气溶胶)

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对其他生物。 对生物气溶胶的部分对这些污染物的更多信息。 生物学是空气中的微生物或其他 生物产生的粒子的研究,以及这些影响气溶胶(气溶胶)对其他生物。对生物气溶胶的部分对 这些污染物的更多信息。 Toxicology Toxicology studies the influence of chemicals on health. All chemical substances may function as toxins, but low concentrations prevent many of them from being harmful. Defining which component of the structure of a chemical predicts the harmful effect is of fundamental importance in toxicology. A second issue is defining the dose/response relationships of a chemical and the exposed population. Dose may refer to delivered dose (exposure presented to the target tissue) or absorbed dose (the dose actually absorbed by the body and available for metabolism). Measures of exposure may be quite distinct from measures of effect because of internal dose modifiers (e.g., delayed metabolism of some toxins because of a lack of enzymes to transform or deactivate them). In addition, the mathematical characteristics of a dose may vary, depending on whether a peak dose, a geometric or arithmetic mean dose, or an integral under the dose curve is used.Because permission to conduct exposure of human subjects in experimental conditions is difficult to obtain, most toxicological literature is based on animal studies. Isolated animal systems (e.g.,homogenized rat livers, purified enzyme systems, or other isolated living tissues) are used to study the effects of chemicals, but extrapolation between dose level effects from animals to humans is problematic. 毒理 毒理学研究化学物质对健康的影响。所有的化学物质都可以作为毒素,但低浓度,防止他 们中的许多人被有害。 确定哪些成分的化学结构预测的有害影响是在毒理学的基本重要性。 第 二个问题是定义一个化学和暴露人群的剂量-反应关系。剂量可参考剂量(暴露了目标组织) 或吸收剂量(剂量实际上被人体吸收和代谢)。措施的暴露可能的措施效果很明显因为内部剂 量修饰符(例如,一些延迟代谢毒素由于缺乏酶的改造或关闭)。此外,一个剂量的数学特征 可能会有所不同,这取决于峰值剂量,几何或算术*均剂量,或整体的剂量曲线下使用。因为 许可在实验条件下的行为人的接触是很难获得的, 大多数的毒理学文献是基于动物的研究。 孤 立的动物系统(例如,大鼠肝脏匀浆,纯化的酶系统,或其他孤立的活组织)是用来研究化学 品的影响,外推剂量水*的影响,从动物到人类之间是有问题的。 HAZARD RECOGNITION, ANALYSIS AND CONTROL Hazard recognition and analysis are conducted to determine the presence of hazardous materials or conditions as sources of potential problems. Research, inspection, and analysis determine how a particular hazard affects occupant health. Exposure assessment, an element of hazard recognition, relies on qualitative,semiquantitative, or quantitative approaches. In many situations,air sampling can determine whether a hazardous material is present. An appropriate sampling strategy must be used to ensure validity of collected samples, determining worst-case (for compliance) or usual (average) exposures. Air sampling can be conducted to determine time-weighted average (TWA) exposures,which cover a defined period of time, or short-term exposures,which determine the magnitude of exposures to materials that are acutely hazardous. Samples may be collected for a single substance or a multicomponent mixture. Hazard analysis also characterizes the potential skin absorption or ingestion hazards of an indoor environment. Analyses of bulk material samples and surface wipe samples are also used to determine whether hazardous conditions exist. Physical agent characterization may require direct-reading sampling methods. After collection and analysis,the results must be interpreted and an appropriate control strategy developed to control, reduce, or eliminate the hazard.

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风险识别和分析、控制 风险识别和分析以确定危险材料或条件存在潜在问题的来源。研究,检验和分析,确定某 一特定风险影响居住者的健康。暴露评估,危险源的识别元素,依靠定性,半定量或定量的方 法。在许多情况下,空气采样可以决定是否有害物质的存在。一个合适的采样策略必须确保样 品的有效性,确定最坏情况(遵守)或正常(*均)的风险。空气取样可以确定时间加权*均 (TWA)暴露,其中包括确定一段时间,或短期的风险,确定风险的大小,材料,急性有害。 样品可以收集单一物质或混合物。危害分析的特点,对皮肤吸收或吸入室内环境危害。散装材 料样品和表面擦拭样品的分析是用来确定是否存在危险的条件。 物理因子的鉴定需要直接读取 采样方法。收集和分析后,结果的解释必须与适当的控制策略来控制,减少或消除风险。 Hazards are generally grouped into one of the following four classes of environmental stressors: 危害通常分为以下四个类别的环境压力: ? Chemical hazards. Routes of exposure to airborne chemicals are inhalation (aspiration), dermal (skin) contact, dermal absorption,and ingestion. The degree of risk from exposure depends on the nature and potency of the toxic effects, susceptibility of the person exposed, and magnitude and duration of exposure. Airborne contaminants are very important because of their ease of dispersal from sources and the risk of exposure through the lungs when they are inhaled. Airborne chemical hazards can be gaseous (vapors or gases) or particulate (e.g., dusts, fumes, mists, aerosols, fibers). ?化学危害。暴露于空气中的化学物质的路线(愿望),吸入皮肤(皮肤)接触,皮肤吸收, 摄入。 从曝光的风险程度取决于性质和毒性作用的潜能, 人的易感性和暴露, 大小和曝光时间。 空气中的污染物是非常重要的因为它们的易扩散的来源和暴露的风险时,他们是通过肺吸入。 机载化学危害可以气态(蒸气或气体)或颗粒(例如,粉尘,烟雾,烟雾,气溶胶,纤维)。 ? Biological hazards. Bacteria, viruses, fungi, and other living or nonliving organisms that can cause acute and chronic illness in workers and building occupants are classified as biological hazards in indoor environments. Routes of exposure are inhalation,dermal (skin) contact, and ingestion. The degree of risk from exposure depends on the nature and potency of the biological hazard, susceptibility of the person exposed, and magnitude and duration of exposure. ?生物危害。细菌,病毒,真菌,和其他生物或非生物,可引起急性和慢性的工人和住户的疾 病分为室内环境中的生物危害。接触途径是吸入,皮肤(皮肤)接触,摄入。从曝光的风险程 度取决于自然环境和效力的生物区—ARD,人的易感性和暴露,大小和曝光时间。 ? Physical hazards. These include excessive levels of ionizing and nonionizing electromagnetic radiation, noise, vibration, illumination, temperature, and force. ? 物理危害。这些包括电离和非电离电磁辐射、 噪声、 振动、 光照、 温度和力水*过高。 ? Ergonomic hazards. Tasks that involve repetitive motions,require excessive force, or must be carried out in awkward postures can damage muscles,nerves, and joints. ? 人体工学的危害。涉及重复性的动作,需要过度使用武力,或必须在不舒适的姿*械娜 务,可损坏肌肉、 神经和关节。 Hazard Control Strategies for controlling exposures in indoor environment are substitution (removal of the hazardous substance), isolation, disinfection, ventilation, and air cleaning. Not all measures may be applicable to all types of hazards, but all hazards can be controlled by using one of them. Personal

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protective equipment and engineering, work practice, and administrative controls are used to apply these methods. Source removal or substitution, customarily the most effective measure, is not always feasible. Engineering controls (e.g., ventilation, air cleaning) may be effective for a range of hazards. Local exhaust ventilation is more effective for controlling point-source contaminants than is general dilution ventilation, such as with a building HVAC system. 风险控制 在室内环境中控制风险的策略是替代(有害物质的去除),隔离,消毒,通风,空气净化。 并不是所有的方法可以适用于所有类型的危害, 但危害是可以利用其中的一个控制。 个人防护 设备和工程,工作实践,行政控制是应用这些方法。源去除或替换,通常最有效的措施,往往 是不可行的。工程控制(例如,通风,空气净化)可能为一系列危害是有效的。对于控制点源 污染物的情况,局部排气通风比一般稀释通风更有效,如建筑的暖通空调系统。 Hazard Analysis and Control Processes. The goal of hazard analysis and control processes is to prevent harm to people from hazards associated with buildings. Quantitative hazard analysis and control processes are practical and cost-effective. Preventing disease from hazards requires facility managers and owners to answer three simple, site-specific questions: 危害分析和控制流程。 危害分析和控制过程的目的是为了防止来于与建筑相关的危害对人 造成伤害。 定量风险分析和控制过程是可行的和具有成本效益的。 预防疾病的危害需要设备管 理人员和业主回答三个简单的问题,定位: ? ? ? ? What is the hazard? 危害是什么呢? How can it be prevented from harming people? 如何可以防止从伤害的人吗?

? How can it be verified that the hazard has been prevented from harming people? Seven principles comprise effective hazard analysis and control: ? 如何可以验证的危害已被阻止伤害的人吗?七项原则包括有效的风险分析与控制: ? Use process flow diagrams to perform systematic hazard analysis ? 使用流程图来执行系统危险分析 ? Identify critical control points (process steps at which the hazard can be eliminated or prevented from harming people) ? 确定关键控制点 (过程步骤的危害可以消除或阻止伤害的人) ? Establish hazard control critical limits at each critical control point ? 建立在每个关键的控制危害控制关键限值点 ? Establish a hazard control monitoring plan for critical limits at critical control points ? 建立监测计划关键限值在灾害防治关键控制点 ? Establish hazard control corrective actions for each critical limit ? 建立灾害控制纠正措施为每个关键的限制 ? Establish procedures to document all activities and results
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? 建立的程序来记录所有的活动和结果 ? Establish procedures to confirm that the plan (1) actually works under operating conditions (validation), (2) is being implemented properly (verification), and (3) is periodically reassessed ? 制定程序, 以确认该计划 (1) 实际工作 根据操作条件 (验证) (2) 正在实施正确 (核 查) 及 (3) 定期重新评估 AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS Many of the same airborne contaminants cause problems in both industrial and nonindustrial indoor environments. These include nonbiological particles [e.g., synthetic vitreous fibers,asbestos, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), combustion nuclei,nuisance dust], bioaerosols, and chemical gases and vapors. Airborne contaminants may be brought in from the outdoors or released indoors by industrial processes, building materials, furnishings, equipment, or occupant activities. In industrial environments, airborne contaminants are usually associated with the type of process that occurs in a specific setting, and exposures may be determined relatively easily by air sampling. Airborne contaminants in nonindustrial environments may result from emissions and/or shedding of building materials and systems; originate in outside air; or result from building operating and maintenance programs, procedures, or conditions. In general, compared to industrial settings, nonindustrial environments include many more contaminants that may contribute to health-related problems. 空气传播的污染物 许多相同的空气污染物导致工业和非工业的室内环境问题。这些包括非生物颗粒 [例如, 玻璃体合成纤维、 石棉、 环境烟草烟雾 (ETS)、 燃烧的细胞核,飞尘],胶,化学气体 和蒸气。空气传播的污染物可能带来从户外或室内发表工业加工、 建筑材料、 家具、 设备、 或乘员活动。在工业环境中,空气传播的污染物通常与类型的过程,发生在一个特定的设置, 并暴露可能确定相对较容易的空气采样。 在非工业环境中的空气污染物可能会导致从排放量和 /或脱落的建材和系统 ;起源于外面的空气 ;或导致从建造营运及维修保养的程序、 过程或 条件。非工业环境与工业设置相比,一般情况下,包括很多更多的污染物,可能有助于与健康 有关的问题。 PARTICLES Particulate matter can be solid or liquid; typical examples include dust, smoke, fumes, and mists. Dusts are solid particles that range in size from 0.1 to 100 μ m, whereas smoke particles are typically 0.25 μ m and fumes are usually less than 0.1 μ m in diameter (Zenz 1988). In contrast, mists are fine droplets of liquid in the air. Fibers are solid particles with length several times greater than their diameter, such as asbestos, manufactured mineral fibers, synthetic vitrefibers, and refractory ceramic fibers. Bioaerosols of concern to human health range from 0.5 to 30 μ m in diameter, but generally bacterial and fungal aerosols range from 2 to 8 μ m in diameter because of agglomeration or rafting of cells or spores (Lighthart 1994).Units of Measurement. The quantity of particles in the air is frequently reported as the mass or particle count in a given volume of air. Mass units are milligrams per cubic metre of air sampled (mg/m 3 ) or micrograms per cubic metre of air sampled (μ g/m 3 ). For conversion, 1 mg/m 3 = 1000 μ g/m 3 . Mass units are widely used in industrial environments because these units are used to express occupational exposure limits。 颗粒 颗粒物可以是固体或液体;典型的例子包括灰尘,烟雾,烟雾缭绕。粉尘是固体颗粒的尺

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寸范围从 0.1 到 100μ m, 而烟雾粒子通常是 0.25μ M 和烟雾通常小于 0.1μ 米直径 (区域 1988) 。 对比烟雾的空气中,液滴。纤维比其直径大的长度好几次如固体颗粒的石棉,制成,矿物纤维 vitrefibers 和陶瓷,合成纤维。担忧人类的生物的范围从 0.5 到 30μ 卫生在直径,但一般细菌、 真菌的气溶胶μ 从 2 至 8 因为结块或是漂流直径细胞或孢子单元(1994 lighthart 测)。空气中 的粒子数量是常见的在一定体积空气的质量粒子计数。质量的单位是毫克每立方米空气采样 (毫克/米 3)或微克每立方米空气采样(μ 克/米 3)。转换,1 毫克/米 3 = 1000μ 克/米 3。质 量的单位在工业环境中被广泛应用,是因为这些单位是用来表示职业暴露的限值。 Particle counts are usually expressed in volumes of 1 cubic foot,1 litre, or 1 cubic metre and are specified for a given range of particle diameter. Particle count measurements are generally used in environments such as office buildings and industrial cleanrooms. 粒子计数通常表示,1 立方英尺,1 公升或 1 立方米的卷,并且为给定范围的粒子直径指 定。粒子计数测量通常用在办公大楼和工业洁净室的环境中。

General Health Effects of Exposure. Health effects of airborne particulate matter depend on several factors, including particle dimension, durability, dose, and toxicity of materials in the particle.Respirable particles vary in size from <1 to 10 μ m (Alpaugh and Hogan 1988). Methods for measuring airborne particles are discussed in Chapter 11. Durability (how long the particle can exist in the biological system before it dissolves or is transported from the system) and dose (amount of exposure encountered by the worker) both affect relative toxicity. In some instances, very low exposures can cause adverse health effects (hazardous exposures), and in others, seemingly high exposures may not cause any adverse health effects (nuisance exposures). 一般健康带来的影响。大气颗粒物对健康的影响取决于若干因素,包括材料毒性剂量、 耐 久性、 微粒粒径的粒子。从大小不同的可吸入粒子 < 1 至 10 微米 (阿尔波和 Hogan 1988 年)。第 11 章中论述了测量大气颗粒物的方法。耐久性 (溶解或从运输之前,生物系统中 存在粒子可以多长时间 系统) 和剂量 (金额曝光所遇到的工作人员) 都将影响相对毒性。在某些情况下,非常低 的曝光可以造成不利健康影响 (危险暴露),且在其他国家,看似高风险敞口不会导致任何 不利的健康影响 (滋扰曝光)。 Safety and health professionals are primarily concerned with particles smaller than 2 μ m. Particles larger than 8 to 10 μ m in aerodynamic diameter are primarily separated and retained by the upper respiratory tract.Intermediate sizes are deposited mainly in the conducting airways of the lungs, from which they are rapidly cleared and swallowed or coughed out. About 50% or less of the particles in inhaled air settle in the respiratory tract. Submicron particles penetrate deeper into the lungs, but many do not deposit and are exhaled. 安全和健康方面的专业人士主要关注的是颗粒小于 2μ M.颗粒大于 8 到 10μ m 粒径主要是 分离和上呼吸道,保持安全和健康。中间尺寸主要沉积在导电的肺部气道,它们迅速清除和吞 咽或咳嗽了。约 50%或更少的颗粒吸入的空气在呼吸道处理。亚微米颗粒深入肺部,但大部分 不存在,都被呼出。 Industrial Environments Exposures and Exposure Sources. In industrial environments,airborne particles are generated by work-related activities (e.g.,adding batch ingredients for a manufacturing process, applying asphalt in a roofing operation, or drilling an ore deposit in preparation for blasting). The engineer must recognize sources of particle generation to appropriately address exposure concerns. Dusts are

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generated by handling, crushing, or grinding, and may become airborne during generation or during handling. Any industrial process that produces dust fine enough (about 10 μ m) to remain in the air long enough to be inhaled or ingested should be regarded as potentially hazardous. In determining worker exposure, the nature of particles released by the activity, local air movement caused by make up air and exhaust, and worker procedures should be assessed for a complete evaluation (Burton 2000). 劳动环境 曝光和暴露源。在劳动环境中,空气中的微粒是由与工作有关的活动 (制造过程中,应用 在屋面操作中,沥青或钻孔爆破准备矿床的 e.g.,adding 批成分) 生成的。工程师必须认识到 颗粒产生适当解决暴露问题的来源。粉尘产生的处理、 压碎,或磨,和可能成为机载在生成 过程中或在处理期间。任何不产生粉尘的工业过程精细足够 (约 10 μ m) 继续在空气中长 时间足以被人吸入或摄入应被视为具有潜在危险。在确定工人接触,公布的活动中,粒子的性 质引起的当地空气流动弥补空气和排气,和工人程序应评估完整的评价 (伯顿 2000 年)。 Health Effects of Industrial Exposures. Pneumoconiosis is a fibrous hardening of the lungs caused by irritation from inhaling dust in industrial settings. The most commonly known pneumoconioses are asbestosis, silicosis, and coal worker’s pneumoconiosis.Asbestosis results from inhalation of asbestos fibers found in the work environment. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (ATSDR 2001) characterizes the toxicological and adverse health effects of asbestos and indicates that asbestos-induced respiratory disease can generally take 10 to 20 years to develop, although there is evidence that early cases of asbestosis can develop in five to six years when fiber concentrations are very high. Asbestos fibers cause fibrosis (scarring) of lung tissue, which clinically manifests itself as dyspnea (shortness of breath) and a nonproductive, irritating cough. Asbestos fiber is both dimensionally respirable and durable in the respiratory system. 工业暴露对健康的影响。 尘肺病是在工业环境中吸入粉尘过敏引起的肺部纤维硬化。 最常 见的是石棉尘肺,矽肺和煤工尘肺,石棉肺。结果发现在工作环境中的石棉纤维吸入。美国卫 生与人类服务部(美国 2001)特征的毒理学和石棉的健康造成不良影响,表明石棉引起的呼 吸—旋病一般需要 10 到 20 年的发展,尽管有证据表明,石棉肺早期病例可在五到六年,如果 当纤维含量很高的发展。石棉纤维会导致肺组织纤维化(疤痕),临床表现为呼吸困难(呼吸 急促)和非生产性的,刺激性咳嗽。石棉纤维在呼吸系统里是可吸入和耐用的。 Silicosis, probably the most common of all industrial occupational lung diseases, is caused by inhalation of silica dust. Workers with silicosis usually are asymptomatic, even in the early stages of massive fibrosis (Leathart 1972). It is not considered a problem in nonindustrial indoor environments. Coal worker’ s pneumoconiosis (CWP, also known as “black lung” ) results from inhalation of dust generated in coal-mining operations. The dust is composed of a combination of carbon and varying percentages of silica (usually <10%) (Alpaugh and Hogan 1988). Because of the confined underground work environment,exposures can be very high at times, thus creating very high doses。 矽肺,最常见的所有工业职业肺疾病,如吸入矽尘所致。矽肺患者通常无症状,甚至在块 状纤维化 (利撒特 1972 ) 的早期阶段。它不是在非工业的室内环境中的问题。煤工尘肺 (CWP,也被称为"黑肺病") 从吸入粉尘在煤炭采矿作业中生成的结果。尘埃组成不同百分 比的硅和碳的组合 (通常 < 10%)(阿尔波和 Hogan 1988)。因为密闭的地下工作环境中, 有时曝光可以非常高,从而造成非常高浓度的粉尘。 Table 2 OSHA Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs) forParticles (29CFR1910.1000, 29CFR1926.1101)

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表 2 OSHA 允许暴露限值(像素) 物质 锰烟尘 巴黎石膏 金刚砂 粮食粉尘 CAS * # 7439-96-5 Nuisance Nuisance Nuisance 像素 1.0 mg/m 3 10.0 mg/m 3 10.0 mg/m 3 10.0 mg/m 3 0.1 mg/m 3 0.1 fibers 纤维/cm 3 15.0 mg/m 3

结晶二氧化硅(石英) 14808-60-7 石棉 总粉尘 *Chemical Abstract Survey。 *化学摘要调查。 1332-21-4 Nuisance

Data show that workers may develop CWP at exposures below the current dust standard of 1 mg/m 3 ). 数据显示,工人可以在在低于当前 1 毫克/立方米粉尘的标准下开发水煤膏)。 Exposure Standards and Criteria. In the United States, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has established permissible exposure limits (PELs) for many airborne particles. PELs are published in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR 1989a, 1989b) under the authority of the Department of Labor. Table 2 lists PELs for several common workplace particles. 暴露标准和准则。在美国,职业安全和健康管理局 (OSHA) 建立了很多悬浮粒子的低 于允许暴露限值 (像素)。根据劳工部的职权,像素在于联邦法规代码 (CFR 1989a,1989b) 发布。表 2 列出了几种常见的工作场所粒子像素。 Exposure Control Strategies. Particulate or dust control strategies include source elimination or enclosure, local exhaust, general dilution ventilation, wetting, filtration, and use of personal protective devices such as respirators. 暴露控制措施。微粒或尘埃控制策略包括源消除或外壳,局部排风,一般稀释通风、 润湿 性、 过滤、 使用呼吸器等个人防护设备。 The most effective way to control exposures to particles is to totally eliminate them from the work environment. The best dust control method is total enclosure of the dust-producing process,with negative pressure maintained inside the entire enclosure by exhaust ventilation (Alpaugh and Hogan 1988). 控制粒子暴露的最有效途径是从他们的工作环境中彻底消除。最好的粉尘控制方法是全密 封式设计的粉尘产生的过程, 通过排气通风来维持整个外壳内的负压 (阿尔波和霍根 1988 年) 。 Local exhaust ventilation as an exposure control strategy is most frequently used where particles are generated either in large volumes or with high velocities (e.g., lathe and grinding operations). High-velocity air movement captures the particles and removes them from the work environment.
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局部排风系统作为一种曝光控制策略最常应用在微粒形成的大空间或与高速度 (例如,车 床和磨削操作)的场所。高速气流运动捕获粒子并从工作环境中移除它们。

General dilution ventilation in the work environment reduces particulate exposure. This type of ventilation is used when particulate sources are numerous and widely distributed over a large area.This strategy is often the least effective means of control, and may be very costly if conditioned (warm or cold) air is exhausted and unconditioned air is introduced without benefit of airside energy recovery. Ventilation and local exhaust for industrial environments are discussed more thoroughly in Chapters 29 and 30 of the 2007 ASHRAE Handbook—HVAC Applications. 在工作环境中的一般稀释通风降低颗粒接触。许多微粒源时使用这种类型的通风和广泛分 布的面积大。这种策略往往是最有效的控制,手段,如果 (热或冷) 空调用尽并无条件的空气 引入无禁区内能量回收的好处, 可能会变得非常昂贵。 用于工业环境通风的地方更彻底地讨论 在章 29 和第 30 条 2007 ASHRAE 手册 — — 暖通空调的应用程序。 Filtration can be an effective control strategy and may be less expensive than general ventilation, although increased pressure drop across a filter adds to fan power requirements, and maintenance adds to system operating cost. 过滤是一种有效的控制策略,并可能比一般的通风便宜,尽管增加的压降跨越一个筛选器 将添加到风扇电源要求,而且增加了系统维护的运行成本。 Using personal protective equipment (e.g., a respirator) is appropriate as a primary control during intermittent maintenance or cleaning activities when other controls are not feasible. Respirators can also supplement good engineering and work practice controls to increase employee protection and comfort (Alpaugh and Hogan1988). Consultation with an industrial hygienist or other qualified health professional is needed to ensure proper selection, fit, and use of respirators. 在间歇维护或其他控件是不可行的时候打扫活动期间才适合作为主要的控制使用个人防 护装备 (如呼吸)。呼吸防护口罩也可以补充良好的工程和工作实践的控制,以提高雇员的 保障和安慰 (阿尔波和 Hogan1988)。与工业卫生学家或其他合格的卫生专业人员咨询来确 保确保正确地选择、 合适和呼吸器的使用是有必要的。 Synthetic Vitreous Fibers Exposures and Exposure Sources. Fibers are defined as slender, elongated structures with substantially parallel sides (as distinguished from a dust, which is more spherical). Synthetic vitreous fibers (SVFs) are inorganic fibrous materials such as glass wool, mineral wool (also known as rock and slag wool), textile glass fibers, and refractory ceramic fibers. These fibers are used primarily in thermal and acoustical insulation products, but are also used for filtration, fireproofing, and other applications.Human exposure to SVFs occurs mostly during manufacture, fabrication and installation, and demolition of those products, because the installed products do not result in airborne fiber levels that could produce significant consumer exposure. Simultaneous exposure to other dusts (e.g., asbestos during manufacture, demolition products and bioaerosols during demolition) is also important. 人造玻璃纤维 接触和暴露源。 纤维是细长, 细长的结构与基本*行的两侧 (区别于尘土, 这是更多的球) 。 人造玻璃纤维(SVFs)是无机纤维材料如玻璃棉,岩棉(又称岩矿棉),纺织玻璃纤维,耐 火陶瓷纤维。这些纤维主要用于隔热和隔音产品,但也用于过滤,防火,和其他应用程序。人

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体 SVFs 大多发生在制造过程中,制造和安装,拆除这些产品,因为安装的产品不会导致空气 中的纤维含量,可以产生显著的消费者接触。同时接触其他粉尘(例如,石棉制造,在拆迁中 产品和生物气溶胶)也很重要。

Health Effects of Exposure. Possible effects of SVFs on health include the following. 暴露的健康影响。人造玻璃纤维对健康的可能影响包括以下几点: Cancer. In October 2001, an international review by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) reevaluated the 1988 IARC assessment of SVFs and insulation glass wool and rock wool.This resulted in a downgrading of the classification of these fibers from Group 2B (possible carcinogen) to Group 3 (not classifiable as to the carcinogenicity in humans). IARC noted specifically that“Epidemiologic studies published during the 15 years since the previous IARC Monographs review of these fibers in 1988 provide no evidence of increased risks of lung cancer or mesothelioma (cancer of the lining of the body cavities) from occupational exposures during manufacture of these materials, and inadequate evidence of any overall cancer risk.” IARC retained the Group 2B classification for special-purpose glass fibers and refractory ceramic fibers, but its review indicated that many of the previous studies need to be updated and reevaluated, because they did not include the National Toxicology Program ’s Report on Carcinogens and the State of California’s listing of substances known to cause cancer. 癌症。2001 年 10 月,国际癌症研究机构 (Iarc) 国际机构审查重新评估 SVFs 和绝缘玻璃 棉和岩棉 1988 年国际癌症研究机构的评估。这导致了这些纤维从 2B 组的分类降级 (可能致 癌物) 与 3 组 (不分类对人类的致癌性)。国际癌症研究机构特别指出"在以前的国际癌症 研究机构专著审查这些纤维的 1988 年以来的 15 年期间出版的流行病学研究提供无风险增 加患肺癌或间皮瘤 (体腔粘膜癌) 从职业暴露在这些材料,制造过程中的证据及任何癌症总 风险证据不足"。国际癌症研究机构保留组 2B 分类专用玻璃纤维和耐火陶瓷纤维,但其审查 表明许多先前的研究需要更新和重新评估, 因为它不包括致癌物质和加利福尼亚州上市的已知 致癌物质的国家毒理学计划的报告。 Dermatitis. SVFs may cause an irritant contact dermatitis with dermal contact and embedding in the skin, or local inflammation of the conjunctiva when fibers contact the eye. Resin binders sometimes used to tie fibers together have, on rare occasions, been associated with allergic contact dermatitis. 皮炎。SVFs 可能与皮肤接触产生刺激然后嵌入在结膜的皮肤,或当纤维接触眼睛的刺激 性,发生局部接触性皮炎。有时被用来制作与纤维相关的树脂粘结剂,与过敏性接触性皮炎, 很少见。

Exposure Standards and Criteria. OSHA has not adopted specific occupational exposure standards for SVFs. A voluntary workplace health and safety program has been established with fibrous glass and rock and slag wool insulation industries under OSHA oversight. This Health and Safety Partnership Program established an 8 h, time-weighted average permissible exposure limit of 1 fiber per cubic centimetre for respirable SVFs. 暴露标准和准则。OSHA 还没有通过具体的职业暴露标准为 SVFs。与纤维玻璃和 OSHA 监督下的岩石和火山灰羊毛保温行业设立了一个自愿工作场所健康和安全方案。 这一健康和安 全伙伴关系计划建立 8 小时,每立方厘米 1 纤维的可吸入 SVFs 时间加权*均低于允许暴露 极限。

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Exposure Control Strategies. As with other particles, SVF exposure control strategies include engineering controls, work practices, and use of personal protective devices. Appropriate intervention strategies focus on source control. 曝光控制策略。随着其他的粒子,特别志愿人员基金曝光控制策略包括工程控制、 工作实 践和个人防护设备的使用。适当的干预战略着眼于源代码管理。

Combustion Nuclei Exposures and Sources. Combustion products include water vapor, carbon dioxide, heat, oxides of carbon and nitrogen, and combustion nuclei. Combustion nuclei, defined in this chapter as particulate products of combustion, can be hazardous in many situations. They may contain potential carcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) are the nitrogensulfur-, and oxygen-heterocyclic analogs of PAHs and other related PAH derivatives. Depending on their relative molecular mass and vapor pressure, PACs are distributed between vapor and particle phases. In general, combustion particles are smaller than mechanically generated dusts. Typical sources of combustion nuclei are tobacco smoke, fossil-fuel-based heating devices (e.g., unvented space heaters and gas ranges), and flue gas from improperly vented gas- or oil-fired furnaces and wood-burning fireplaces or stoves. Infiltration of outdoor combustion contaminants can also be a significant source of these contaminants in indoor air. Therefore, combustion nuclei are important in both industrial and nonindustrial settings. 燃烧核 暴露源。燃烧产物包括水蒸气,二氧化碳,热量,碳和氮的氧化物,和燃烧核。燃烧的 核,在这一章中定义为燃烧颗粒的产品,可以是有害的在许多情况下。它们可能含有潜在的 致癌物质,如多环芳烃(PAHs)。多环芳香族化合物(PACS)是 nitrogensulfur,氧杂环类似 物多环芳烃和其他相关的多环芳烃衍生物。这取决于它们的相对分子质量和蒸汽压力,PACS 蒸汽和颗粒相之间的分布。一般来说,燃烧颗粒较机械产生的粉尘。燃烧核的典型来源是烟 草烟雾,基于化石燃料的加热设备 (例如,不通风的空间加热器和燃气灶) ,以及不当的通风 气体或油烟气燃烧炉和烧木头的壁炉和火炉。室外燃烧污染物的渗透也可以是室内空气中的 这些污染物的重要来源。因此,燃烧核工业和非工业的设置是很重要的。 Exposure Standards and Criteria. OSHA established exposure limits for several of the carcinogens categorized as combustion nuclei [i.e., benzo(a)pyrene, cadmium, nickel, ben-zene, n-nitrosodimethylamine]. These limits are established for industrial work environments and are not directly applicable to general indoor air situations. Underlying atherosclerotic heart disease may be exacerbated by carbon monoxide (CO) exposures. 暴露标准和准则。OSHA 建立几个被归类为燃烧原子核 [即苯并 (a) 芘、 镉、 镍、 本氯 苯、 n-亚硝基二甲] 的化学致癌物接触限值。这些限*⒐ひ倒ぷ骰肪巢⒉恢苯邮视糜谝话 室内空气的情况下。处于一氧化碳 (CO)的环境中可能加剧动脉粥样硬化性心脏病的的可能 性。 Exposure Control Strategies. Exposure control strategies for combustion nuclei are similar in many ways to those for other particles. For combustion nuclei derived from space heating, air contamination can be avoided by proper installation and venting of equipment to ensure that these contaminants cannot enter the work or personal environment. Proper equipment maintenance is also essential to minimize exposures to combustion nuclei.

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暴露控制策略。燃烧原子核的暴露控制策略是在很多方面类似于那些为其他粒子。对于来 自空间加热燃烧原子核, 空气污染可以避免的正确安装和通风设备, 以确保这些污染物不能侵 入到工作或个人环境。适当的设备维护对于尽量减少暴露于燃烧原子核也是必须。 Particles in Nonindustrial Environments Exposures and Sources. In the nonindustrial indoor environment, particle concentrations are greatly affected by the outdoor environment. Diesel engines emit large quantities of fine particulate matter. Indoor particle sources may include cleaning, resuspension of particles from carpets and other surfaces, construction and renovation debris, paper dust, deteriorated insulation, office equipment, and combustion processes (including cooking stoves, fires, and environmental tobacco smoke). 工业环境中的颗粒 暴露源。在非工业室内环境,室外环境颗粒物浓度的影响。柴油机排放的大量细颗粒物。 室内颗粒物的来源可能包括清洗,从地毯和其他表面的颗粒再悬浮,建设和改造碎片,纸灰, 恶化绝缘,办公设备,和燃烧过程(包括炉灶,火灾,和环境烟草烟雾)。 Although asbestos is commonly found in buildings constructed before the 1970s, it generally does not represent a respiratory hazard except to individuals who actively disturb it during maintenance and construction. School custodians, therefore, are recognized to be at risk for asbestos-related changes. Anderson et al. (1991) and Lilienfeld (1991) raise questions about risk to teachers. 虽然石棉普遍存在于七十年代以前的建筑,在维护和建设过程中,它通常并不会被考虑为 呼吸系统的一种危害而被积极地清除。因此,学校的宿舍管理员,被公认为是存在与石棉相关 的变化的风险中。安德森 等人(1991 年) 和满月 (1991 年) 提出一些关于教师风险的问题。 An important source of particulates, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) consists of exhaled mainstream smoke from the smoker and sidestream smoke emitted from the smoldering tobacco.Approximately 70 to 90% of ETS results from sidestream smoke,which has a chemical composition somewhat different from mainstream smoke. More than 4700 compounds have been identified in laboratory-based studies, including known human toxic and car-cinogenic compounds such as carbon monoxide, ammonia, formaldehyde, nicotine, tobacco-specific nitrosamines, benzo(a)pyrene,benzene, cadmium, nickel, and aromatic amines. Many of these constituents are more concentrated in sidestream smoke than in mainstream smoke (Glantz and Parmley 1991). In studies conducted in residences and office buildings with tobacco smoking permitted, ETS was a substantial source of many gaseous and particulate PACs (Offermann et al. 1991). 粒子的重要来源,环境烟草烟雾 (ETS) 组成的呼出主流烟气排放阴燃烟草的卷烟烟气 与吸烟者。大约 70 到 90%的 ETS 结果从侧流烟,有某种程度上不同于主流烟气的化学组 成。 基于实验室的研究, 其中包括已知的人类有毒和车 cinogenic 的化合物, 如一氧化碳、 氨、 甲醛、 尼古丁、 烟草特有亚硝胺、 苯并 (a) 芘、 苯、 镉、 镍和芳香胺类化合物,已有 超过 4700 化合物。许多这些成分多集中于比主流烟气中的侧流烟 (格兰兹和帕姆利 1991 年)。 在允许吸烟的住宅和办公大楼进行的研究表明, ETS 是许多气态和颗粒 PACs (Offermann 等人,1991 年) 的一个重要来源。 Health Effects of Exposure. The health effects of exposure to combustion nuclei depend on many factors, including concentration, toxicity, and individual susceptibility or sensitivity to the particular substance. Combustion-generated PACs include many PAHs and nitro-PAHs that have been shown to be carcinogenic in animals (NAS 1983). Other PAHs are biologically active as tumor promoters

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and/or cocarcinogens. Mumford et al. (l987) reported high exposures to PAH and aza-arenes for a population in China with very high lung cancer rates. 暴露的健康效应。接触燃烧核对健康的影响取决于许多因素,包括浓度,毒性,和个体易 感性或敏感性的特殊物质。PACS 系统包括许多燃烧产生的多环芳烃和硝基多环芳烃已被证明 是致癌物质在动物(NAS 1983)。其他多环芳烃生物活性的促癌和/或促癌物。芒福德等人。 (1987)报道高暴露于多环芳烃和氮杂芳烃为人口在中国具有很高的肺癌发病率。 According to the U.S. EPA (2005) fine particulate matter (particles less than 2.5 μ m in diameter) is associated with lung disease,asthma, and other respiratory problems. Short-term exposure may cause shortness of breath, eye and lung irritation, nausea, lightheadedness, and possible allergy aggravations. 根据美国环境保护署(2005)提出细颗粒物(粒径小于 2.5μ 米直径)与肺部疾病,哮喘和 其他呼吸系统问题相关。短期暴露可能导致呼吸急促,眼睛和肺部发炎,恶心,头晕,和可能 的过敏的困扰。 ETS has been shown to be causally associated with lung cancer in adults and respiratory infections, asthma exacerbations, middle ear effusion (DHHS 1986; NRC 1986), and low birth mass in children (Martin and Bracken 1986). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency classifies ETS as a known human carcinogen (EPA1992). Health effects can also include heart disease, headache, and irritation. ETS is also a cause of sensory irritation and annoyance (odors and eye irritation). ETS 已被证明是与成人呼吸道感染,肺癌的因果相关的哮喘发作,中耳积液(DHHS 1986; NRC 1986),与儿童低出生体质量(Martin 和蕨菜 1986)。美国环境保护署将 ETS 作为已知 的人类致癌物(EPA1992)。健康的影响还包括心脏病,头痛,和刺激。ETS 也是感官刺激和 烦恼的一个因素(气味和刺激眼睛)。 Exposure Standards. There are no established exposure guidelines for particles in nonindustrial indoor environments. The EPA National Ambient Air Quality standard (NAAQS) is 150 μ g/m 3 for a 24 h average for particles smaller than 10 μ m in diameter, and 35 μ g/m 3 for a 24 h average for particles smaller than 2.5 μ m in diameter. 暴露标准。有没有既定的暴露在非工业室内环境颗粒指南。EPA 国家环境空气质量标准 (NAAQS)是 150μ 克/米 3 为一个 24 小时的*均颗粒直径小于 10μm,和 35μ 克/米 3 为一个 24 小时的*均颗粒直径小于 2.5μM。 Exposure Control Strategies. Particulate or dust control strategies for the nonindustrial environment include source elimination or reduction, good housekeeping, general dilution ventilation, and upgraded filtration. In general, source control is preferred.Combustion appliances must be properly vented and maintained. If a dust problem exists, identify the type of dust to develop an appropriate intervention strategy. Damp dusting and high-efficiency vacuum cleaners may be considered. Building spaces under construction or renovation should be properly isolated from occupied spaces to limit transport of dust and other contaminants. Minimizing idling of diesel-powered vehicles near buildings can reduce entry of fine particulate matter. 暴露控制策略。颗粒或粉尘控制策略的在非工业环境中包括源头消除或减少,良好的监控, 一般稀释通风和升级过滤。在一般情况下,污染源头控制优先。燃烧器具必须适当的通风和维 护。 如果存在粉尘问题, 找出适当的干预策略尘埃的类型。 湿除尘和高效真空吸尘器可以考虑。

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建筑空间的建设或改造下应适当限制占用的空间分离的灰尘和其他污染物。 减少建筑物附*的 柴油车辆,可以减少细颗粒物进入。 Control of ETS has been accomplished primarily through regulatory mandates on the practice of tobacco smoking indoors. Most U.S. states and E.U. member states have passed laws to control tobacco smoking in at least some public places, including public buildings, restaurants, and workplaces, and the FAA (2000) has prohibited smoking on all flights to and from the United States, as have many airlines throughout the world. Where tobacco smoking is permitted, appropriate local and general dilution ventilation can be used for control; however, the efficacy of ventilation is unproven (Repace 1984). Some studies indicate that extremely high ventilation rates may be needed to dilute secondhand smoke to minimal risk levels (Repace and Lowrey 1985, 1993). Although subsequently withdrawn (OSHA 2001), the Occupational Safety and Health Administration proposed (OSHA 1994) that tobacco smoke in indoor environments be controlled by using separately ventilated and exhausted smoking lounges, in which no work activities would occur concurrent with smoking. These lounges were to be kept under negative pressure relative to all adjacent and communicating indoor spaces, with smoking allowed only when the exhaust ventilation system was working properly. ETS 控制主要通过有关于室内吸烟的法规的实施。大多数美国和欧盟成员国已经通过了法 律来控制,至少一些公众地方,包括公共建筑、 餐厅和工作场所吸烟和 (2000 年) 美国联 邦航空局已禁止在所有的航班吸烟, 包括美国在世界各地多家航空公司。 在吸烟允许的适当的 地方, 可以通过一般稀释通风可以用来控制 ; 然而, 通风效果是未经检验的(Repace 1984 年) 。 一些研究表明, 极高的通风量可能稀释二手烟对风险降至最低级别 (Repace 和劳里 1985 年, 1993 年)。虽然后来撤回 (OSHA 2001 年)、 职业安全和健康管理局提出 (OSHA 1994 年) 烟草引起的烟雾在室内环境中通过使用单独通风和排烟休息室, 其中工作活动不会与吸烟同时 发生。 当允许只有排气通风系统正常工作时, 这些休息室都必须保持在相对于所有相邻房间负 压,与吸烟的室内空间气流交换。 Bioaerosols 生物气溶胶 Bioaerosols are airborne biological particles derived from viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, algae, mites, plants, insects, and their by-products and cell mass components. Bioaerosols are present in both indoor and outdoor environments. For the indoor environment, locations that provide appropriate temperature and humidity conditions and a food source for biological growth may become problematic. 生物气溶胶在空气中的生物粒子来自病毒,细菌,真菌,原生动物,藻类,植物,昆虫, 螨虫,及其副产物和细胞团组成。生物气溶胶在室内和室外环境。对于室内环境,地点,提供 适当的温度和湿度条件和生物生长的食物来源可能成为问题。 In microbiology, reservoirs allow microorganisms to survive,amplifiers allow them to proliferate, and disseminators effectively distribute bioaerosols. Building components and systems may have only one factor, or all three; for instance, a cooling tower is an ideal location for growth and dispersal of microbial contaminants and can be the reservoir, amplifier, and disseminator for Legionella (harboring microorganisms in scale, allowing them to proliferate, and generating an aerosol).

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在微生物学,水库允许微生物生存,放大器允许他们增殖,有效分配和传播生物。建筑构件 和系统可能只有一个因素,或三;例如,冷却塔是一种生长和微生物污染物扩散的理想位置, 可储,放大器,和传播者军团菌(含微生物的规模,促使他们的增殖并产生气溶胶)。 Both the physical and biological properties of bioaerosols need to be understood. For a microorganism to cause illness in building occupants, it must be transported in sufficient dose to a susceptible occupant. Airborne infectious particles behave physically in the same way as any other aerosol-containing particles with similar size, density, and electrostatic charge. The major difference is that bioaerosols may cause disease by several mechanisms (infection, allergic disease, toxicosis), depending on the organism, dose, and susceptibility of the exposed population. Although microorganisms exist normally in indoor environments, the presence of abundant moisture and nutrients in interior spaces results in the growth of fungi, bacteria, protozoa, algae, or even nematodes (Arnow et al. 1978; Morey and Jenkins 1989; Morey et al. 1986; Strindehag et al. 1988). Thus, humidifiers, water spray systems, and wet porous surfaces can be reservoirs and sites for growth. Excessive air moisture (Burge 1995) and floods (Hodgson et al. 1985) can also result inproliferation of these microorganisms indoors. Turbulence associated with the start-up of air-handling unit plenums may also elevate concentrations of bacteria and fungi in occupied spaces (Buttner and Stetzenbach 1999; Yoshizawa et al. 1987). 无论是生物气溶胶的物理和生物特性需要被理解。对于微生物引起住户的疾病,它必须有 足够的剂量输送到一个敏感的人。 空气传染粒子的物理行为以同样的方式为其他气溶胶含有颗 粒大小一致,密度,和静电电荷。主要的区别是,生物气溶胶可通过多种机制引起疾病(感染, 过敏性疾病,中毒),取决于有机体,剂量,和暴露人群的易感性。虽然在室内环境中正常存 在的微生物,在室内空间的结果,真菌生长,充足的水分和养分的存在,细菌,原生动物,藻 类, 甚至线虫 (阿诺等人。 1978; 莫雷和詹金斯 1989; 莫雷等人。 1986 strindehag 等人。 1988) 。 因此, 加湿器, 水喷雾系统, 和湿多孔表面可以生长的水库和网站。 过量空气湿度 (伯格 1995) 和洪水(霍奇森等人。1985)也可以导致在这些微生物在室内。湍流空气处理机组的高压也可 能提高占用空间的细菌和真菌的浓度启动相关(布特纳和 stetzenbach Yoshizawa 等人 1999。 1987)。 Building Surface and Material Sources. Floors and floor coverings can be reservoirs for organisms that are subsequently resuspended into the air. Routine activity, including walking and vacuuming (Buttner et al. 2002), may even promote resuspension (Cox 1987). Some viruses may persist up to eight weeks on nonporous surfaces (Mbithi et al. 1991). 建筑物表面和材料来源。地板和地板覆盖物可以悬浮在空气中,随后生物气藏。日常活动, 包括步行和吸尘(布特纳等人。2002),甚至促进悬浮(COX 1987)。有些病毒可能会持续 长达八周的无孔的表面(mbithi 等人。1991)。 Building Water System Sources. Although potable water is usually delivered to buildings free of biological hazards, once the water enters the facility it becomes the responsibility of facility managers and owners to ensure that its microbial and chemical quality does not degrade. In fact, biological hazards associated with processes in building water systems cause considerable disease. Most cases of legionellosis, for example, result from exposure to potable water in buildings (McCoy 2005; WHO 2007). Nonpotable water is a well-known source of infective agents, even by aerosolization. Baylor et al. (1977) demonstrated the sequestering of small particles by foam and their subsequent dispersal through bubble bursting. This dispersal may take place in surf, river sprays,

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or artificial sources such as whirlpools. 建筑给水系统的来源。虽然饮用水通常是交付建筑无生物危害,一旦水进入设备成为设备 管理人员和业主有责任确保其微生物和化学质量不降低。 事实上, 随着建筑水系统过程的生物 危害造成相当大的病。 大多数情况下, 军团菌病, 例如, 从暴露于建筑物饮用水的结果 (McCoy 2005 人;2007)。非饮用水是一个著名的感染药源,甚至通过雾化。贝勒等人。(1977)证 明螯合的泡沫和随后的扩散通过泡沫破灭的小颗粒。这种传播可能发生在冲浪,河的喷雾剂, 或人工光源如漩涡。 Building Occupant Sources. People are an important source of bacteria and viruses in indoor air. Infected humans can release virulent agents from skin lesions or disperse them by coughing, sneezing, or talking. Other means for direct release include sprays of saliva and respiratory secretions during dental and respiratory therapy procedures. Blood sprays during dental and surgical procedures are of potential concern for aerosol transmission of bloodborne diseases, including HIV and hepatitis. Large droplets can transmit infectious particles to those close to the disseminator, and smaller particles can remain airborne for short or very long distances (Moser et al. 1979). 建筑使用者的来源。 人是室内空气中的细菌和病毒的重要来源。 感染人类可以释放致命的 药物从皮肤病变或驱散他们通过咳嗽,打喷嚏,或者说。直接释放其他手段包括牙科和呼吸治 疗过程中唾液和呼吸道分泌物喷剂。血喷牙科和手术中的气溶胶传播血源性疾病的潜在问题, 包括艾滋病和肝炎。 大液滴可以传播传染性颗粒接*传播者, 以及更小的粒子可以短或很长的 距离保持空降(Moser 等人。1979)。 Health Effects. The presence of microorganisms in indoor environments may cause infective and/or allergic building-related illnesses (Burge 1989; Morey and Feeley 1988). Some microorganisms under certain conditions may produce volatile chemicals (Hyppel 1984) that are malodorous.Microorganisms must remain viable to cause infection, although nonviable particles may promote an allergic disease, which is an immunological response. An organism that does not remain virulent in the airborne state cannot cause infection, regardless of how many units of organisms are deposited in the human respiratory tract. Virulence depends on factors such as relative humidity, temperature, oxygen, pollutants, ozone, and ultraviolet light (Burge 1995), each of which can affect survival and virulence differently for different microorganisms. Harmful chemicals produced by microorganisms can also cause irritant responses or toxicosis. 健康的影响。室内环境中的微生物的存在可能会导致感染和/或过敏性建筑有关的疾病(伯 格 1989; 莫雷和菲利 1988) 。 在一定的条件下, 一些微生物可以产生的挥发性化学物质 (hyppel 1984)有恶臭。微生物必须保持活力造成感染,尽管没有自生能力的粒子可以促进过敏性疾病 的一种,它是一种免疫反应。一个不在空中的状态不能引起感染仍然是致命的生物,不管有多 少单位的生物沉积在人体呼吸道。毒力取决于如湿度,温度,氧气,污染物,臭氧和紫外线的 因素,(下面 1995),每一个都可以影响生存和毒力的不同,不同的微生物。微生物产生的 有害化学物质也会引起刺激性反应或中毒。 A wide variety of bacteria, fungi, and protozoa are prevalent in health care building water systems and can cause disease by transmission through water and air. Clinically important microorganisms known to cause disease in health care facilities include the bacteria Legionella, Pseudomonas, and Mycobacteria; the fungi Aspergillus and Fusarium; and the protozoa Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Acanthamoeba.

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各种各样的细菌,真菌,原生动物,是普遍的医*ㄖ乃低常梢酝ü涂掌 引起的疾病。临床上重要的微生物引起的疾病,在医疗保健设施包括军团菌,假单胞菌属,与 分枝杆菌;真菌曲霉、镰刀菌;原生动物贾第鞭毛虫和隐孢子虫,,和棘阿米巴。 Fungal Pathogens. Exposure to airborne fungal spores, hyphal fragments, or metabolites can cause respiratory problems ranging from allergic diseases (e.g., allergic rhinitis, asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis) to infectious diseases such as histoplasmosis,blastomycosis, and aspergillosis. In addition, acute toxicosis and cancer have been ascribed to respiratory exposure to mycotoxins (Levetin 1995). A large body of literature supports an association between moisture indicators in the home and symptoms of coughing and wheezing (Miller and Day 1997; Spengler et al. 1992). 病原真菌。暴露于空气中的真菌孢子,菌丝片段,或代谢产物可引起呼吸道的问题从过敏 性疾病(例如,过敏性鼻炎,哮喘,过敏的敏感性肺炎)感染性疾病如组织胞浆菌病,芽生菌 病,曲霉菌病。此外,急性中毒和癌症已被归因于呼吸暴露于霉菌毒素(levetin 1995)。大量 的文献支持在咳嗽和喘息的家和症状之间的关联(米勒水分指标和 1997 天;斯宾格勒等人。 1992)。 Many fungal genera are widely distributed in nature and are common in the soil and on decaying vegetation, dust, and other organicdebris (Levetin 1995). Fungi that have a filamentous structure are called molds, and reproduce by spores. Mold spores are small (2 to 10μ m in diameter), readily dispersed by water splash and air currents,and may remain airborne for long periods of time (Lighthart and Stetzenbach 1994; Streifel et al. 1989). Aspergillus fumigatus is one of the few molds that can cause infections in humans, and is the most frequent cause of aspergillosis, a lung infection that has been extensively researched. Aspergillosis in hospital patients has been caused by environmental sources, especially during renovation or nearby construction activity. Histoplasmosis is an infection caused by His toplasma capsulatum, which has been reported to cause buildingrelated illness among workers removing bat or bird droppings in abandoned buildings (Bartlett et al. 1982) or cleaning chicken coops.Presumably, asexual spores from this fungus were inhaled by workers who removed the droppings without adequate respiratory protection. 许多真菌属,广泛分布于自然界中,在土壤和腐烂的植物,是常见的灰尘,和其他 organicdebris(levetin 1995)。有丝状真菌被称为霉菌,并用孢子繁殖。霉菌孢子很小(2 到 , 通过水飞溅, 气流容易分散, 并可长时间保持空降 (lighthart 和 stetzenbach streifel 10μ 米直径) 等人 1994。1989)。烟曲霉菌是一种能引起人类感染的数模,是曲霉菌感染的最常见原因, 肺部感染,已经被广泛的研究。曲霉病住院患者已由环境引起的,特别是在装修或附*的建筑 活动。他浆菌组织胞浆菌病的引起的感染,会造成 buildingrelated 患病除废弃的建筑物蝙蝠或 工人之间(Bartlett 等译鸟类粪便。1982 个)或清洁鸡舍。据推测,这种真菌无性孢子因为工 人没有采取适当的保护而从粪便中吸入的。 When moisture problems result in mold growth, building occupants may begin to report odors and a variety of health problems, such as headaches, breathing difficulties, skin irritation, allergic diseases, and aggravation of asthma symptoms, all of which may be associated with mold exposure. All molds have the potential to cause health effects. Molds produce allergens, irritants, and, in some cases, toxins that may cause reactions in humans. The types and severity of the symptoms depend, in part, on the types of mold present, extent of an individual ’ s exposure, ages of exposed individuals,and their existing sensitivities or allergies (EPA 2001). 当水分问题导致霉菌生长,居住建筑可能开始报告气味和各种健康问题,如头痛、 呼吸困 难、 皮肤刺激性、 过敏性疾病和加重哮喘症状,所有的一切都可能与模具接触有关。所有模

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具都有可能对健康造成影响。模具制作的过敏原,刺激物,以及在某些情况下,可能会引起反 应,在人类中的毒素。类型和症状的严重性取决于部分类型的模本,个体暴露、 暴露个人的 年龄和他们现有的敏感性或过敏 (EPA 2001) 的范围。 Symptoms of irritant responses and toxigenic reactions from exposure to molds in indoor environments range from mild to severe. Irritant reactions, including conjunctivitis, vasomotor or irritant rhinitis, rhinosinusitis, and asthma exacerbation, are poorly understood but are thought to be a nonspecific reaction to bioaerosol particles rather than a specific allergic response to a particular protein. The specific toxigenic effects of mycotoxins remain controversial, but are under investigation. More than 300 toxins are produced by molds (mycotoxins); Stachybotrys chartarum is often cited as a toxigenic mold, but all fungal genera have the potential to produce chemicals that could be harmful to humans. Ingestion of contaminated grain is the most common route of exposure to mycotoxins,but inhalation and dermal contact have also resulted in toxicoses in building occupants and agricultural workers. Mycotoxins are associated with actively growing colonies and spores; they are not gaseous, unlike microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs).MVOCs are natural by-products of microbial metabolism produced by actively growing organisms, and they have been alleged to cause headache, nausea, and malaise in building occupants. 刺激性反应和毒素的暴露于模具中室内环境范围从轻微到严重的反应的症状。刺激性反 应,包括结膜炎、 血管舒缩性或刺激性变应性鼻炎、 鼻窦炎,哮喘,了解甚少,但被认为是 对生物气溶胶颗粒的非特异性反应,而不是具体的过敏反应,对一种特定的蛋白质。真菌毒素 的特定产毒疗效仍有争议,但正在接受调查。超过 300 毒素是由霉菌 (毒素) ; 产生的。穗 选择经常被列为产毒的模具, 但所有的真菌属有潜力产生可能对人体有害的化学物质。 受污染 摄入暴露于毒素,最常见的途径是谷物的大全建设占用和农业工作者也导致吸入和皮肤接触。 真菌毒素是与积极增长殖民地和孢子 ;他们不是气态的与不同的微生物挥发性有机化合物 (挥发性)。挥发性自然代谢副产物的微生物产生的积极成长的有机体,并据说在居住建筑中 造成头痛、 恶心和全身乏力。 Bacterial Pathogens. Diseases produced by the bacterial genus Legionella are collectively called legionelloses. More than 45 species have been identified, with over 20 isolated from both environmental and clinical sources. Conditions favorable for Legionellae growth include water temperatures of 25 to 42°C; stagnant conditions; presence of scale, sediment, and biofilms; and the presence of amoebas (Geary 2000). Diseases produced by Legionella pneumophila include Legionnaires ’ disease (pneumonia form) and Pontiac fever (flulike form). L. pneumophila serogroup 1 is the most frequently isolated from nature and most frequently associated with disease, but characteristics of the exposed individual (e.g., tobacco smoking, excessive weight, age) and viability of the bacterium affect the virulence. Legionellosis is not rare, but it is rarely diagnosed, and is severely underreported, often lost among other causes of pneumonia. McCoy (2006) estimated that, every day in the United States, an average of about 11 people die from legionellosis, and another 57 are infected but recover, often with lifelong debilitation. 细菌性病原体。由细菌属军团菌产生的疾病统称为 legionelloses。超过 45 种已与 20 多个 孤立的环境和临床来源。军团菌生长的有利条件包括 25 至 42 °C; 水温低迷的状况 ;存在规 模、 沉积物和生物膜 ;和阿米巴原虫 (Geary 2000) 的存在。由嗜肺军团菌产生的疾病包括退 伍军人症 (肺炎窗体) 和庞蒂亚克发烧 (流感窗体)。L.嗜 1 是个体的最经常分离出本质 的和最经常伴随疾病,但暴露 (如吸烟、 过度的体重、 年龄) 的特征和细菌的生存影响菌 的毒力。军团病并不罕见,但它很少被诊断出来,并严重低估,往往失去了其他原因引起的肺 炎。麦科伊 (2006 年) 估计,在美国,*均约 11 人死于军团病,每一天和另一个 57 感染但 恢复,经常与终身衰弱。

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In a review of waterborne infections from building water systems,it was estimated that 1400 deaths occur each year in the United States from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, another waterborne bacteria commonly found in building water systems (Anaissie et al. 2002). 在审查中水性感染从建筑供水系统,据估计 1400 年人死亡每年发生在美国境内铜绿假单 胞菌,常见于建筑供水系统 (Anaissie 等人,2002 年) 的另一种水性细菌。 Viral Pathogens. Outbreaks of infection in indoor air may also be caused by viruses. Viruses are readily disseminated from infected individuals, but cannot reproduce outside a host cell. Therefore,they do not reproduce in building structures or air-handling components, but can be distributed throughout buildings through duct systems and on air currents.Human-to-human dispersal is common. In one example, most of the passengers in an airline cabin developed influenza following exposure to one acutely ill person (Moser et al. 1979). In this case, the plane had been parked on a runway for several hours with the ventilation system turned off. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), caused by a corona virus similar to the common cold, was assumed to result from large droplet transmission; however, in an outbreak in a high-rise apartment, airborne transmission was the primary mode of disease spread, likely through dissemination from a bathroom drain (Yu et al. 2004). 病毒性病原体。室内空气中的感染暴发也可能是由病毒引起的。病毒很容易散发的感染的 个体中,但不能复制在宿主细胞外。因此,他们做的不是再现在建筑结构或空气处理组件,但 可以遍布建筑物通过管道系统和气流。人与人传播是常见的。在一个例子中,大多数航空公司 客舱的乘客开发流感暴露于一个急病人 (Moser 等人,1979 年) 之后。在这种情况下,这架 飞机停在跑道上好几个小时与通风系统关闭。严重急性呼吸系统综合症 (SARS),造成类似 于普通感冒的冠状病毒被认为是造成大的飞沫传播 ;然而,在高层公寓的暴发中,机载传输 是疾病的传播,可能通过从浴室流失 (玉等人,2004 年) 传播的主要模式。 Infectious diseases are transmitted through three primary routes: (1) direct contact and fomites (i.e., inanimate objects that transport infectious organisms from one individual to another), (2) large droplets [generally with a mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) > 10 ?m], and (3) fine particles, sometimes called droplet nuclei (MMAD < 10 ?m) (Mandell et al. 1999). Additional transmission routes, such as through blood transfusions, intravenous injections, or injuries, are not of concern here. Table 3 lists infections considered transmissible by air. 传染性疾病通过三个主要途径: (1) 直接接触和污染物 (即,无生命的物体,运输传 染性微生物,从一个人到另一个),[一般用体积中位数气动直径 (MMAD) > 10 微米], (2) 大的飞沫和 (3) 细颗粒,有时被称为飞沫核 (MMAD < 10 ? m) (身等人,1999 年)。附 加传输路线,如通过输血,静脉注射或受伤,不是关注在这里。 Nonviable Biological Substances. Allergic reactions are an immunological response to foreign protein. Allergies may develop after dermal contact or inhalation of particles containing microorganisms, microbial fragments or by-products, and other biological components (e.g., enzymes, mite and cockroach excreta, pet dander).Cases of allergic respiratory illness (e.g., humidifier fever, hypersen-sitivity pneumonitis) manifest acute symptoms such as malaise,fever, chills, shortness of breath, and coughing (Edwards 1980; Morey 1988). In buildings, these illnesses may occur as a response to microbiological contaminants from HVAC system components,such as humidifiers and water spray systems, or other mechanical components that have been damaged by chronic water exposure (Hodgson et al. 1985, 1987). The severity of immunological reactions to bioaerosols can vary dramatically, from discomfort (allergicrhinitis and sinusitis) to life-threatening asthma. Allergy testing may be helpful in identifying an offending agent, but often is not. In cases of

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more severe illness, it may be necessary to remove an affected individual from exposure, even after appropriate abatement and exposure control methods have been instituted within the building. 非活性生物物质。过敏性反应是外源蛋白的免疫反应。过敏皮肤接触或吸入颗粒可能含 有微生物后的发展,微生物的碎片或副产品,和其他生物成分 (例如,酶,螨和蟑螂,宠物皮 屑)。过敏性呼吸道疾病的患者(例如,加湿器发热,发型超敏反应肺炎)表现为急性症状如 乏力,发烧,发冷,气短呼吸,咳嗽(爱德华兹 1980;莫雷 1988)。在建筑中,这些疾病可 能是从空调系统部件的微生物污染物的反应发生,如加湿器和喷水系统,或被水损坏的慢性 暴露其他机械部件(霍奇森等人。1985 了,1987)。生物免疫的反应严重程度不同显着,不 适的 (过敏性鼻炎及鼻窦炎对威胁生命的哮喘) 。过敏试验可以确定违规代理是有帮助的,但 往往是不。例更严重的疾病,它可能需要从曝光删除受影响的个人,即使经过适当的治理和 曝光控制方法已经建立的建筑物内。 Crandall and Sieber (1996) demonstrated that 47 of 104 problem buildings evaluated had water damage in occupied areas. Other studies concluded that unusual populations and high concentrations of microorganisms in indoor air may increase occupants ’ health complaints (Brundage et al. 1988; Burge 1995; Burge et al. 1987). 兰德尔和 Sieber (1996 年) 表明 47 104 问题楼宇评估在被占领地区的水损害。其他研 究得出的结论不寻常的人口和高浓度的室内空气中的微生物可能会增加居住者的健康投诉 (Brundage et al.1988 年 ;Burge 1995 年 ;Burge et al.1987 年)。 Exposure Guidelines for Bioaerosols. At present, numerical guidelines for bioaerosol exposure in indoor environments are not available for the following reasons (Morey 1990): 对生物气溶胶暴露指南。目前,室内环境中的生物气溶胶暴露数值准则是不可用的理由如 下(莫雷 1990): ? Incomplete data on background concentrations and types of microorganisms indoors, especially as affected by geographical, seasonal, and building parameters ?不完整数据的背景浓度和类型的微生物在室内,特别是地理,季节性的影响,并建立参数 ? Incomplete understanding of and ability to measure routes of exposure, internal dose, and intermediate and ultimate clinical effects ?完全理解和衡量暴露途径,内照射剂量的能力,和中间和最终的临床效果 ? Absence of epidemiological data relating bioaerosol exposure indoors to illness ?缺乏有关的生物气溶胶暴露室内疾病流行病学数据 ? Enormous variability in types of microbial particles, including viable cells, dead spores, toxins, antigens, MVOCs, and viruses ?巨大变异的微生物颗粒类型,包括活细胞,死孢子,毒素,和病毒抗原,MVOCs, ? Large variation in human susceptibility to microbial particles, making estimates of health risk difficult However, even without numerical guidelines, bioaerosol sampling data can be interpreted based on factors such as ?大变化的人敏感性微生物颗粒,使健康风险却难估计,即使不计算准则,生物气溶胶的采样 数据可基于因素如解释

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? Rank order assessment of the kinds (genera/species) of microorganisms present in complainant and control locations (ACGIH 1999) . ?等级评估的种(属/种)微生物在投诉人和控制位置(ACGIH 1999)。 Effects of Thermal Environment on Specific Diseases 热环境对特定疾病的影响 Cardiovascular diseases are largely responsible for excess mortality during heat waves. For example, Burch and DePasquale (1962) found that heart disease patients with decompensation (i.e.,inadequate circulation) were extremely sensitive to high temperatures, and particularly to moist heat. However, both cold and hot temperature extremes have been associated with increased coronary heart disease deaths and anginal symptoms (Teng and Heyer 1955). 在热浪期间, 心血管疾病是死亡率过高的主要原因。 例如, ·伯奇和 ·德帕斯卡尔 (1962 年) 发现心脏病患者失代偿 (i.e.,inadequate 循环) 极为敏感,温度高,特别是高温高湿。然而,这 两个极端冷热温度已与增加的冠心病死亡和心绞痛症状 (腾和海尔 1955 年) 相关联。 Both acute and chronic respiratory diseases often increase in frequency and severity during extreme cold weather. No increase in these diseases has been noted in extreme heat. Additional studies of hospital admissions for acute respiratory illness show a negative correlation with temperature after removal of seasonal trends (Holland 1961). Symptoms of chronic respiratory disease (bronchitis,emphysema) increase in cold weather, probably because reflex constriction of the bronchi adds to the obstruction already present.Greenberg (1964) found evidence of cold sensitivity in asthmatics:emergency room treatments for asthma increased abruptly in local hospitals with early and severe autumn cold spells. Later cold waves with even lower temperatures produced no such effects, and years without early extreme cold had no asthma epidemics of this type. Patients with cystic fibrosis are extremely sensitive to heat because their reduced sweat gland function greatly diminishes their ability to cope with increased temperature (Kessler and Anderson 1951). 急性和慢性呼吸道疾病往往增加频率和严重程度在极端寒冷的天气。在极热至今亦没有增 加这些疾病。 医院收治的急性呼吸道疾病的其他研究表明切除的季节性趋势 (荷兰 1961 年) 与 温度呈负相关。(支气管炎、 肺气肿) 的慢性呼吸道疾病的症状可能增加在寒冷的天气,因 为反射支气管的收缩将添加到已存在的*8窳植 (1964 年) 发现证据表明哮喘: 应 急室治疗哮喘在当地医院与早期和严重的秋季寒潮突然增加冷敏感性。 后来冷波与更低的温度 下产生没有这样的效果,和 年没有早期的极端寒冷有没有哮喘流行病的这种类型。 囊性纤维化患者对热都极为敏感, 因为 他们减弱的汗腺功能大大削弱他们应付增加的温度的能力 (凯斯勒和安德森 1951 年)。 Itching and chapping of the skin are influenced by (1) atmospheric factors, particularly cold and dry air; (2) frequent washing or wetting of skin; and (3) low indoor humidities. Although skin itching is usually a winter cold-climate illness in the general population,it can be caused by excessive summer air conditioning (Gaul and Underwood 1952; Susskind and Ishihara 1965). 瘙痒和龟裂的皮肤受 (1) 大气因素,尤其是寒冷和干燥的空气 ;(2) 经常洗或湿的皮肤 ; 和 (3) 低的室内湿度。虽然皮肤瘙痒通常是在普通人群中的冬天寒冷气候疾病,可引起过 度夏季空调 (高卢和 安德伍德 1952 年 ;金德和石原慎太郎 1965 年)。

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People suffering from chronic illness (e.g., heart disease) or serious acute illnesses that require hospitalization often manage to avoid serious thermal stress. Katayama and Momiyana-Sakamoto(1970) found that countries with the most carefully regulated indoor climates (e.g., Scandinavian countries, the United States) have only small seasonal fluctuations in mortality, whereas countries with less space heating and cooling exhibit greater seasonal swings in mortality. For example, mandatory air conditioning in retirement and assisted living homes in the southwest United States has virtually eliminated previously observed mortality increases during heat waves. 患有慢性疾病(例如,心脏病)或严重急性疾病需住院治疗常常设法避免严重的热应力。 片山和 momiyana 坂(1970)发现,最精心调节室内气候的国家(例如,北欧国家,美国)的 死亡率只有小的季节性波动, 而空间少加热和冷却方面表现出更大的季节性波动的死亡率。 例 如, 强制空调退休和辅助在美国西南部的生活家园几乎消除了以前观察到的死亡率增加热浪期 间。 Injury from Hot and Cold Surfaces The skin has cold, warm, and pain sensors to feed back thermal information about surface contacts. When the skin temperature rises above 45°C or falls below about 15°C, sensations from the skin’s warm and cold receptors are replaced by those from pain receptors to warn of imminent thermal injury to tissue. The rate of change of skin temperature and not just the actual skin temperature may also be important in pain perception. Skin temperature and its rate of change depend on the temperature of the contact surface, its conductivity, and contact time. Table 6 gives approximate temperature limits to avoid pain and injury when contacting three classes of conductors for various contact times (ISO 2006). 冷和热的表皮损伤 皮肤有冷,热,疼痛传感器反馈的表面接触的热信息。当皮肤温度上升超过 45° C 或低于 约 15° C,从皮肤的温暖和寒冷的感觉是由那些从疼痛受体受体取代警告即将发生的热损伤组 织。 对皮肤温度变化率而不是实际的皮肤温度也可能在疼痛的感知是重要的。 皮肤温度及其变 化率取决于接触表面的温度,电导率,和接触时间。表 6 避免痛苦和伤害时,接触三类骗局给 出*似的温度范围—不同接触时间基金(ISO 2006).. Sound and Noise 声音和噪音 In general terms, sound transmitted through air consists of oscillations in pressure above and below ambient atmospheric pressure.A vibrating object causes high- and low-pressure areas to be formed; these areas propagate away from the source. The entiremechanical energy spectrum includes infrasound and ultrasound as well as audible sound . 总的来说,声音通过空气由上方和下方的环境大气压力的压力振动。振动的物体产生的高、 低压区的形成;这些地区传播远离源。的 entiremechanical 能量谱包括次声和超声以及声音。 Health Effects. Hearing loss is generally considered the most undesirable effect of noise exposure, although there are other effects.Tinnitus, a ringing in the ears, is really the hearing of sounds that do not exist. It often accompanies hearing loss. Paracusis is a disorder where a sound is heard incorrectly; that is, a tone is heard, but has an inappropriate pitch. Speech misperception occurs when an individual mistakenly hears one sound for another (e.g., when the sound for t is

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heard as a p). 健康的影响。听力损失通常被认为是噪声暴露最不利的影响,虽然有其他的影响。耳鸣, 耳内鸣响,真是听起来不听证存在。它往往伴随着听力损失。误听是一个*桓錾舨徽 确;是,一听到音调,但不适当的间距。言语误解发生在一个人误听到一声另一个(例如,当 T 的声音为 P)。 Hearing loss can be categorized as conductive, sensory, or neural. Conductive hearing loss results from a general decrease in the amount of sound transmitted to the inner ear. Excessive ear wax, a ruptured eardrum, fluid in the middle ear, or missing elements of bone structures in the middle ear are all associated with conductive hearing loss. These are generally not occupationally related and are generally reversible by medical or surgical means. Sensory hearing losses are associated with irreversible damage to the inner ear. Sensory hearing loss is further classified as (1) presbycusis, loss caused as the result of aging; (2) noise-induced hearing loss (industrial hearing loss and sociacusis, which is caused by noise in everyday life); and (3) nosoacusis, losses attributed to all other causes. Neural deficits are related to damage to higher centers of the auditory system. 听力损失可以归类为导电、 感官,或神经。传导性听力丧失的结果从一般减少声音传至内 耳。过多的耳屎、 耳膜破裂,流体在中耳或缺少的中耳骨结构的元素是所有关联与传导性听 力丧失。这些一般不职业相关,并且通常是可逆的内科或外科手段。感觉性听力损失是伴有耳 内不可逆损伤。感觉性听力损失进一步归类为 (1) 老年性耳聋,损失造成的老化 ;(2) 噪 声性听力损失 (工业 听力损失和 sociacusis,在日常生活中的噪声引起) ;和 (3) nosoacusis,损失归咎于其他 的原因。有关神经赤字损害到更高的听觉系统的中心。 Noise-induced hearing loss is believed to occur in the most sensitive individuals among those exposed for 8 h per day over a working lifetime at levels of 75 dBA, and for most people similarly exposed to 85 dBA. 噪声性听力损失被认为发生在最敏感的个人在当中每天暴露在各级 75 的 dBA 的环境中工 作 8 小时最容易发生敏感,类似于哪些大多数人遭受 85 dBA 的。 Lonizing Radiation 电离辐射 Ionizing radiation is the part of the electromagnetic spectrum with very short wavelengths and high frequencies, and it has the ability to ionize matter. These ionizations tend to be very damaging to living matter. Background radiation that occurs naturally in the environment is from cosmic rays and naturally occurring radionuclides. It has not been established whether exposure at the low dose rate of average background levels is harmful to humans. 电离辐射是很短的波长与高频率的电磁波谱的一部分,它有能力以电离物质。这些 在环境中自然发生的背景辐射是从宇宙射线和自然 ionizations 往往是对生命的物质损害很大。 存在的放射性核素。不设立暴露在低剂量率与*均下限水*是否对人体有害。 The basic standards for permissible air concentrations of radioactive materials are those of the National Committee on Radiation Protection, published by the National Bureau of Standards as Handbook No. 69. Industries operating under licenses from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission or state licensing agencies must meet requirements of the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 20. Some states have additional requirements. 国家辐射保护委员会制定的放射性物质容许空气浓度的基本标准,由国家标准局出版,手

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册 69 号。获得美国核管理委员会或国家授权机构的许可的研究机构必须符合联邦法规规范要 求(标题 10,部分 20)。一些州有补充要求。 An important naturally occurring radionuclide is radon ( 222 Rn),a decay product of uranium in the soil ( 238 U). Radon, denoted by the symbol Rn, is chemically inert. Details of units of measurement, typical radon levels, measurement methods and control strategies can be found in Chapter 11. 一个重要的天然放射性核素氡(Rn,222),在土壤中铀的衰变产物(238 U)。氡 Rn, 用符号表示,是化学惰性的。测量单位的细节,典型的氡水*,测量方法和控制策略可以在 11 章发现 Health Effects of Radon. Radon is the leading cause of lung cancer among nonsmokers, according to EPA (2008b) estimates.Most information about radon’ s health risks comes from studies of workers in uranium and other underground mines. The radioactive decay of radon produces a series of radioactive isotopes of polonium, bismuth, and lead. Unlike their chemically inert radon parent,these progeny are chemically active and can attach to airborne particles that subsequently deposit in the lung, or deposit directly in the lung without attachment to particles. Some of these progeny, like radon, are alpha-particle emitters, which can cause cellular changes that may initiate lung cancer when they pass through lung cells (Samet 1989). Thus, adverse health effects associated with radon are caused by exposures to radon decay products, and the amount of risk is assumed to be directly related to the total exposure. Even though it is the radon progeny that present the possibility of adverse health risks, radon itself is usually measured and used as a surrogate for progeny measurements because of the expense involved in accurate measurements of radon progeny. 氡的健康影响。根据 EPA(2008b)估计,氡是非吸烟者患肺癌的主要原因。大部分关于氡 的健康风险来自于铀和其他井下工人的研究。氡的放射性衰变产生一系列的钋的放射性同位 素,铋,铅。不像他们的化学惰性的氡的源物,这些后代的化学性质很活泼,能将空气中的颗 粒,随后在肺的存款,或存款直接在肺没有附着的微粒。这些后代,如氡,α 粒子发射器,当 它们穿过的肺细胞时会引起的可能发生肺癌的变化(Samet 1989)。因此,健康的不利影响是 与暴露于氡的衰变产物引起的, 风险的等级被认为与总暴露直接相关。 即使目前氡的衰变产物 存在不良健康风险的可能性, 由于氡衰变产物的精确测量的费用, 氡本身也被用于测量和后代 代孕检查。 Exposure Standards. Many countries have established standards for exposure to radon. About 6% of U.S. homes (i.e., 5.8 million homes) have annual average radon concentrations exceeding 148 Bq/m 3 (4 pCi/L), the action level set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Marcinowski et al. 1994). Because there is no known safe level of exposure to radon, the EPA (2008b) also recommends that all homes should be tested for radon, regardless of geographic location, and consideration should be given to remedial measures in homes with radon levels between 2 and 4 pCi/L. 暴露标准。许多国家建立了氡暴露标准。约有 6%的美国家庭 (即 580 万家庭) 有年度 *均氡浓度超过 148 Bq/m 3 (4 pCi/L) ,美国环境保护署 (马尔奇诺夫斯基等人,1994 年) 所 订的行动水*。 因为没有已知的的氡暴露安全水*, EPA (2008b) 还建议所有家庭都应测试氡, 不论地理位置,并考虑给予在氡水*之间 2 和 4 pCi L.的家庭改善措施 Nonionizing Radiation
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非电离辐射 Ultraviolet radiation, visible light, and infrared radiation are components of sunlight and of all artificial light sources. Microwave and radio-frequency radiation are essential in a wide range of communication technologies and are also in widespread use for heating as in microwave ovens and heat sealers, and for heat treatments of various products. Power frequency fields are an essential and unavoidable consequence of the generation, transmission, distribution, and use of electrical power. 紫外线、 可见光和红外辐射是阳光和所有的人工光源的组合。微波和射频辐射广泛的通信 技术至关重要, 也广泛使用微波炉和热封机, 加热和热处理的各种产品。 电源频率领域是发电、 输电、 配电和使用电力重要的和不可避免的结果。 Optical Radiation. Ultraviolet (UV), visible, and infrared (IR) radiation compose the optical radiation region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The wavelengths range from 100 nm in the UV to 1 mm in the IR, with 100 nm generally considered to be the boundary between ionizing and nonionizing. The UV region wavelengths range from 100 to 400 nm, the visible region from 400 to 760 nm,and the IR from 760 nm to 1 mm. 光辐射。紫外线 (UV),可见和红外 (IR) 辐射构成电磁频谱中的光辐射区域。波长 范围从 100 到 1 毫米的红外光谱,与 100 UV nm nm 通常被认为是边界之间电离和非电离。 紫外线区域波长范围从 100 到 400 毫微米,可见区域从 400 到 760 毫微米和从 760 IR 毫微 米至 1 毫米。 Optical radiation can interact with a medium by reflection,absorption, or transmission. The skin and eyes are the organs at risk in humans. Optical radiation from any spectral region can cause acute and/or chronic biologic effects given appropriate energy characteristics and exposure. These effects include tanning, burning (erythema), premature “aging,” and skin cancer; and dryness, irritation, cataracts, and blindness in the eyes. 光辐射可以通过反射、 吸收或透射与介质进行交互。 在人类身上的皮肤和眼睛是危险器官。 从任何光谱区域的光辐射可以导致急性或慢性的生物学效应,给出了适当的能量特征和曝光。 这些影响包括制革、 燃烧 (红斑)、 过早"衰老"和患皮肤癌的危险 ;干燥、 发炎、 白内障 和眼中的盲目性。 The region of the electromagnetic spectrum visible to humans is known as light. There can be biological, behavioral, psychological, and health effects from exposure to light. Assessment of these effects depends on the purpose and application of the illumination.Individual susceptibility varies, with other environmental factors (air quality, noise, chemical exposures, and diet) acting as modifiers. It is difficult, therefore, to generalize potential hazards.Light pollution is the presence of unwanted light. 在人体的电磁频谱中的可见区域被称为光。人从暴露于光可能会有生理、 行为、 心理、 和健康的影响。评估这些影响取决于目的和照明的应用。个体易感性的变化,与其他环境因素 (空气质量、 噪声、 化学物质和饮食) 作为修饰符。它很难,因此,推广了潜在的危险。 光污染是光的不需要的存在。 Light pollution is the presence of unwanted light. Light penetrating the retina not only allows the exterior world to be seen, but, like food and water, it is used in a variety of metabolic processes. Light stimulates the pineal gland to secrete melatonin, which regulates the human biological clock. This, in turn, influences reproductive cycles, sleeping, eating patterns, activity levels,and moods. The color of light affects the way the objects appear. Distortion of color rendition may result in disorientation, headache,dizziness, nausea, and fatigue.As the daylight shortens, the human body may experience a gradual slowing down, loss of energy, and a
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need for more sleep. It becomes harder to get to work, and depression or even withdrawal may take place. This type of seasonal depression, brought on by changes in light duration and intensity, is called seasonal affective disorder (SAD). Sufferers also complain of anxiety, irritability,headache, weight gain, and lack of concentration and motivation. Treatment of this problem is through manipulation of environmental lighting (exposure to full-spectrum lighting for extended periods,12 h/day) 光污染是不需要的光存在。光穿透视网膜不只允许外部的世界将被看见,像食物和水,它 用于各种代谢过程。光线会刺激松果体分泌褪黑激素,调节人体生物钟。反过来又影响睡眠、 饮食结构、 活动水*和情绪的生殖周期。光线的颜色会影响对象的显示的方式。失真的显色 性可能会导致迷失方向、 头痛、 头晕、 恶心、 疲劳。当白昼缩短,人体内可能会经历逐渐 慢下来,损失的能量,并需要更多的睡眠。它变得更难去干活,和抑郁或甚至撤离可能发生。 这种类型的季节性抑郁症,在光的持续时间和强度,带来的变化称为季节性情绪紊乱症 (SAD)。患者也抱怨焦虑、 易怒、 头痛、 体重增加和缺乏浓度和动机。对待这个问题要 通过操纵环境照明 (暴露延长的期间,每天 12 小时的全光谱照明)解决。 Radio-Frequency Radiation. Just as the body absorbs infrared and light energy, which can affect thermal balance, it can also absorb other longer wavelength electromagnetic radiation. For comparison,visible light has wavelengths in the range 0.4 to 0.7 μ m and infrared from 0.7 to 10 μ m, whereas the wavelength of K and X band radar is 12 and 28.6 mm. The wavelength of radiation in a typical microwave oven is 120 mm. Infrared is absorbed within 1 mm of the surface (Murray 1995). The heat of absorbed radiation raises skin temperature and, if sufficient, is detected by the skin’s thermoreceptors, warning the person of possible thermal danger. With increasing wavelength, radiation penetrates deeper into the body. Energy can thus be deposited well beneath the skin’s thermoreceptors, making the person less able or slower to detect and be warned of the radiation (Justesen et al. 1982). 无线电频率辐射。正如身体吸收红外和光的能量,可以影响热*衡,它也可以吸收其他 更长波长的电磁辐射。 相比之下, 可见光的波长范围 0.4 至 0.7 微米和红外的但从 0.7 到 10 μ m,K 和 X 波段雷达的波长则 12 和 28.6 毫米。在一个典型的微波炉辐射的波长是 120 毫米。 红外吸收表面 (Murray 1995) 1 毫米范围内。被吸收的辐射热引起的皮肤温度,如果 充足的检测到的皮肤温度感受器,警告可能的热危险的人。随着波长的增加,辐射深入渗透到 体内。沉积能量较好下方的皮肤温度感受器,使人不能或更慢来检测和辐射 (Justesen 等人, 1982 年) 的警告。 ERGONOMICS Ergonomics is the scientific study of the relationship between humans and their work environments to achieve optimum adjustment in terms of efficiency, health, and well-being. Ergonomic designs of tools, chairs, etc., help workers interact more comfortably and efficiently with their environment. In jobs that were ergonomically designed, productivity typically increases and the worker enjoys a healthier working experience. More recently, researchers have distinguished intrinsic ergonomics from extrinsic, or traditional, ergonomics. Intrinsic ergonomics considers how the interface between an individual and the environment affects and relies on specific body parts (i.e., muscles, tendons, and bones) and work practices such as force of application, relaxation intervals, styles, and strength reserves that are not adequately considered in simple analyses of the physical environment.The goals of ergonomic programs range from making work safe and humane, to increasing human efficiency, to creating human well-being. The successful application of ergonomic factors is measured by improved productivity, efficiency, safety, and acceptance of the resultant system design. The design engineer uses not only engineering skills, but also the principles of anatomy, orthopedics,physiology, medicine, psychology, and sociology to apply ergonomics to a design.
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人机工程学 人机工程学是研究人类和他们的工作环境, 实现高效、 健康和福祉的最佳调整之间关系的 科学。人体工学设计的工具、 椅子等,帮助工人能够与其环境互动更舒适和更有效率。设计 了符合人体工程学的工作,通常生产力以及职工享受更健康的工作经验。最*,研究人员有区 别外在,或传统,人机工程学的内在的人类工效学。内在的人类工效学考虑如何个体与环境之 间的界面影响,依赖于特定的身体部位 (即,肌肉,肌腱和骨头) 和工作实践力的应用、 放 松的时间间隔、 样式和强度储备,简单分析的物理环境中没有充分地考虑。人体工学程序范 围从制作工作安全和人性化,提高人类的效率,创造人类的目标 福祉。人体工学因素的成功应用被测定提高的生产力、 效率、 安全和接受由此产生的系统设 计。设计工程师不仅运用工程技能,而且也运用解剖、 骨科、 生理学、 医学、 心理学和社 会学的原则来完成一个设计。 Implementing ergonomic principles in the workplace helps minimize on-the-job stress and strain, and prevents cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs). These disorders are subtle injuries that can affect the muscles, tendons, and nerves at body joints, especially the hands, wrists, elbows, shoulders, neck, back, and knees. Carpal tunnel syndrome is an example of a CTD. CTDs most frequently occur as a result of strain from performing the same task on a continuous or repetitive basis. This strain can slowly build over time, until the worker experiences pain and difficulty using the injured part of the body. Higher risks of developing CTDs are encountered when the work task requires repetitive motions, excessive force, or awkward postures. The ergonomics engineer addresses these risk factors by analyzing the task thoroughly and minimizing the repetitive motion, excessive force, and awkward posture 在工作场所实施人机工程学原理帮助尽量减少在职的应力和应变, 并防止累积性外伤失调 (定植)。这些疾病是可以影响肌肉,肌腱和在身体关节,尤其是手、 手腕、 手肘、 肩膀、 颈部、 背部、 及膝盖的神经的细微损伤。腕隧道症候群是榜样 CTD。定植最频繁发生应变 从连续或重复的基础上执行相同的任务。 这株可以慢慢地随着时间推移, 直到工人经历痛苦和 困难用受伤的身体部位。风险较高的发展中国家定植被遇到工作任务需要重复动作、 过度使 用武力或不舒适的姿势。人机工程学工程师通过深入分析任务和减少重复性的动作、 过度使 用武力,以及笨拙的姿势来解决这些风险因素。 Poor space ergonomics (Hartkopf and Loftness 1999) and consequent occupant interventions may also directly affect indoor conditions. For example, inappropriate use of cabinets, closets, furniture, partitions, room equipment or other obstructions may block air supply or exhaust vents, reduce airflow rates and temperature or humidity regulation, and disturb airflow (Lee and Awbi 2004). These kinds of problems are usually attributed to poor space layout and ventilation design, but usually originate from lack of space availability, such as small room dimensions and high occupancies. Reduced ventilation rates deteriorate conditions for indoor environmental health, working, and comfort. They may be encountered in over-staffed offices (Mahdavi and Unzeitig 2005) or in demanding environments such as hospital operating theatres (Balaras et al. 2006). 简单的航天工效学 (Hartkopf 和洛夫特尼斯 1999 年) 和随之而来的乘员干预也可能直接 影响室内的条件。例如,不恰当地使用橱柜、 衣柜、 家具、 分区、 机房设备或其他* 可能阻止空气供应或排气口、 减少气流速度和温度或湿度调节及扰乱气流 (李和 Awbi 2004 年)。这类问题通常归因于失败的空间布局和通风设计,但通常产生于空间利用率高低、 房 间尺寸小和入住率高等。减少的通风会恶化室内环境卫生、 工作和舒适的条件。人浮于事的 办事处 (马达和 Unzeitig 2005) 或在苛刻环境下,他们可能会遇到,如医院手术室 (Balaras 等人,2006 年)。
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